Since these provisions are contained in the City Charter, changes cannot be made without voter approval. However, the Administrative Code promulgates additional rules of City employment, including approval for exempt employees. This presents an opportunity for the City to consolidate all exemptions into the Administrative Code and allow for administrative changes to be made as necessary without taking the steps required for revising the City Charter. The current multi-step process for civil service hiring is complex and time-consuming. As of December , Personnel averaged 98 days to open the recruitment and an additional days to provide a list to departments total of days.
This contributes to the complexity of selecting and hiring employees. Step 1 Responsibility: Operating Dept. Requests new candidate list, if expired, the following steps occur:. Step 2 Responsibility: Personnel Dept. Step 3 Responsibility: Personnel Dept. Step 4 Responsibility: Personnel Dept.
Creates civil service test. Step 5 Responsibility: Personnel Dept. Posts job bulletin on NeoGov website usually for 2 weeks , advertises in social media. Step 6 Responsibility: Personnel Dept. Step 7 Responsibility: Personnel Dept. Step 8 Responsibility: Personnel Dept. Step 9 Responsibility: Operating Dept. Upon completion of Personnel steps, requests the new certified list of eligible candidates highest 3 whole scores. Step 10 Responsibility: Operating Dept. Screens candidates, using written exercises, interviews, or physical practical tests.
Step 11 Responsibility: Operating Dept.
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Step 12 Responsibility: Personnel Dept. Conducts background check and medical exam. Step 13 Responsibility: Personnel Dept. Provides orientation to new employee. Personnel acknowledges that their multiple step process affects timing, and reported that it is not meeting a Mayoral goal regarding completing exams. Not all steps are performed by Personnel and some of the timing delays are caused by hiring departments not providing their job experts when needed.
While timeframes vary by job classification and exam type, innovative practices can help. The City is becoming more innovative, and has made some progress in shortening timeframes. For example, some departments administer the civil service test on college campuses during career fairs for entry-level Engineer classifications. This has eliminated some steps typical to civil service hiring; i. More can be done. Some cities have much shorter timeframes. While these cities differ from Los Angeles by number of employees, measurement points and possibly legal mandates, the results reveal practices that shortened their process and illustrate that Personnel should continue its efforts to reduce its processing timeframes.
Los Angeles: Averages days from exam request to certified list of candidates. Reduced by 31 days as of December San Diego: Averages 58 days. Uses a predictive recruitment schedule. San Jose: Reduced from a high of 60 days down to 40 days. Focused on minimum qualifications and gave more autonomy to departments to lead recruitment efforts.
San Francisco: Reported a median of days measuring to time to hire. Austin: Averages 80 — 90 days until job acceptance. The City has not focused on hard-to-fill positions. There are a wide variety of jobs offered by the City; some may receive thousands of applications, while others are hard to fill and are posted for continuous recruitment. The City of San Francisco successfully focused on attracting and hiring hard-to-fill nurses and technologists IT staff , by shortening the hiring time frame and delivering a consistent message of public service.
An overloaded Personnel Department has not been able to focus on certain jobs without the initiative and support of certain departments e. Except for the timeframe for testing dates, the City also does not keep applicants advised of the timing of each step of the process, leaving applicants to wonder if the recruitment is still viable. City operating departments are considered the experts for their employment needs; however, individual departments are constrained by having to centralize their hiring process through the Personnel Department.
While some job classifications are broadly used throughout the City, other classifications are used by only one or a few departments; those could be filled more expeditiously through decentralized hiring. Decentralized hiring has been used by the Bureau of Engineering BOE , by coordinating with Personnel to provide on-campus civil service testing for entry level engineering positions. Even using this method, once BOE performs an interview, the certified list of candidates is available to all other departments.
Since then, exam requests have increased and resources have not been provided for Personnel to meet its workload demands. In some instances, Personnel processes thousands of applications for one classification. For example, Personnel received 2, applications for mechanical helper and 4, for police service representative in one year.
The chart reflects the volume of job applications received by Personnel. Although the Department does not have to review all outside applicants, it must review all of the applications submitted by City employees. Read More Branding the City and Attracting the Best-Suited Candidates To attract the next generation of employees, the City needs to transform how it recruits and hires new people. Research 5 indicates different generational viewpoints on what is important about a career, and what attracted members of the Baby Boom and Gen X to the City no longer holds true for many Millennials and members of Generation Z.
To adapt, the City needs to actively seek out a diverse pool of prospective employees and reach out to a wider audience — from online spaces to the communities where people live. Providing alternative pathways to City employment could also help attract prospective employees who might otherwise be overlooked. The City can better appeal to all prospective employees by emphasizing the meaningful and inspiring work that City employees do, and by making sure that outdated job titles are revised and clearer to understand.
Political and financial support will help these changes become long-lasting. Currently, Personnel must limit where it advertises because it has no recruiting budget, requiring it to rely on a few departments to fund its already limited efforts. The City needs to address the gender gap to attract more women to its workforce, especially in non-traditional and management roles.
Personnel reported to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission that it has identified recruitment strategies to improve diversity in order to comply with federal laws. Personnel management indicated that they have developed targeted recruitment plans for some under-represented job classes, but are limited by available resources. The City could also diversify the places and methods used to seek prospective employees. The City centralizes most of its recruiting and testing in downtown Los Angeles. This may have worked before the internet and when traffic was less of a barrier, but it does not work well now.
Currently, there are limited efforts to recruit prospective candidates from within their communities, or local high schools, trade schools, military bases, and colleges and universities. While the City could participate in more recruitment fairs, it could also make computers available to those without the necessary technologies, so that underserved applicants can obtain information on jobs or take tests from their neighborhoods instead of having to travel downtown to do so. The City could start by transforming unused space in the Personnel department to provide access to such computers, and then spread out into other neighborhoods.
Non-traditional feeder positions could be more fully utilized. Fellows and student interns may receive some benefit e. The Mayor promoted hiring through this program by issuing Executive Directive Those hired through TLH are able to become civil service employees without taking a civil service exam, substituting their training for the exam. To date, six job classifications are applicable to TLH.
The City should evaluate whether salaries and job qualifications are aligned with comparable industry jobs. We also noted that job solicitations for LADWP customer service representatives CSR resulted in 28, applications in one year and openings for meter reader generated more than 25, applications over the last few years. These jobs generated a lot of interest because they offer relatively high starting salaries e. Moreover, the level of interest for City jobs in general may be affected by minimum job requirements that may be too narrowly defined to provide sufficient flexibility to adjust the search for candidates as deemed necessary.
Personnel has taken some action to address outdated job titles in the City. For example, the former Clerk Typist position is now entitled Administrative Clerk. With additional focus, Personnel could rename all City job titles that are not reflective of industry terminology or relatable nomenclature. Personnel should continue to implement innovative ideas from the branding study study and Google Innovation Lab Lab.
Personnel has been creative in implementing some aspects of the Lab and study, with the resources allotted. Personnel staff produced YouTube videos that frame City jobs as inspiring, meaningful, diverse and fun. Personnel has also posted successful, creative ads on social media, including Facebook, Linked In, Instagram and Twitter such as the one for a Procurement Analyst shown on the following page. Additionally, Personnel has developed a skill-matching site for entry level jobs to assist candidates on identifying positions that fit their skill sets and interests. Unless otherwise stated in the report, research cited is from this source.
Read More Engaging Employees in a Renewed Workforce Considerable effort is dedicated to recruit employees, so it is important for the City, as it renews its workforce, to keep employees engaged by addressing their motivations and concerns. According to a survey of state and local government 7 , turnover is one of the highest concerns relative to workforce issues.
Attracting, Training, and Retaining Talent
The economy has improved, the labor pool is shrinking, and employees have other options, which emphasizes the importance of retaining and engaging employees. While much of the exodus from government organizations is due to retiring baby boomers, there is the risk of losing disengaged workers or retaining disengaged and unproductive workers. All employees need to be engaged to remain productive but research indicates that Millennials and Gen-Z employees value different things than past generations. Therefore, the City must be cognizant of what is important to the next generations of employees as it renews its workforce.
As a group, Millennials and Gen-Zs value the following:. These changes will also support a stronger shift in the role of the Personnel Department, from its current focus on hiring, and serve to help transform it into a more robust department for Human Resources, which should also be reflected by a formal name change to the Department. Orientation typically occurs in one day and focuses on reviewing rules and policies, choosing benefits, and completing paperwork.
Onboarding is a longer process that keeps new employees engaged and connected with others. For some federal government managerial positions, onboarding lasts a whole year. The positive effects of a robust onboarding process extend far beyond the first day and can help employees feel engaged. After the City has invested the resources to hire its employees, it should provide a positive experience to transition employees into the City family.
The branding study revealed that employees value compensation. In the private sector and in a few government agencies, salary increases are primarily merit-based. In addition to considering merit-based pay, the City should also consider providing managers with more discretion to increase salaries as a means to retain experienced employees. However, the City could offer more flexibility allowing employees to customize their benefits package to better align it with their own personal situation.
The County of Los Angeles provides a set amount to be spent on benefits, allowing increased flexibility to their employees. Limited career paths and lack of awareness about job opportunities affect employee engagement and retention. Career ladders are well-defined for only some classifications, and employees are not readily made aware of opportunities for which they qualify. Personnel voluntarily publishes internal transfer opportunities if a department makes the request, but there is no requirement to post those opportunities on governmentjobs. Research suggests that government should focus on talent management, leadership development, mentoring, and job rotations.
Leadership development and tuition reimbursement are inconsistently offered in the City. Personnel provides classroom leadership training to the 23 departments that it directly serves.
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A few other departments also offer this type of training, but employees in smaller departments may not have that opportunity. If the City expects to grow talent from within, it must help its employees gain new ideas and expertise by expanding their opportunities, through both internally sponsored, and external training programs. In addition, formal mentoring or job rotation programs help employees learn how to succeed in the organization.
LA County uses job rotations to help employees develop, and we noted mentoring and job rotation programs at BOE. In order to retain the new generations of employees, the City needs to improve its feedback mechanisms, as this is relevant and important to Millennials and Gen-Z. New employees want feedback—not the traditional annual performance evaluations, but frequent, real-time feedback or coaching to improve performance and receive recognition. The City does not enforce regular employee evaluations, and some employees receive little or no feedback on their performance.
CLEAR enables interactive reviews focusing on communication career development and performance improvement; while it is available to all departments, only LADOT is using this tool. Feedback is also beneficial when it is used to facilitate evaluations, where management also obtains information from existing or departing employees through surveys and exit interviews.
New generations of employees highly value work-life balance, and desire more control over their time through flexible schedules and telecommuting. Millennials prefer self-directed work, reduced layers of decision making, and working in teams in a friendly, relaxed environment. They also value a balanced work-life schedule and flexibility. Additional flexibility may also be provided to employees by allowing them to take on-site college classes or address child care needs on certain days.
Telecommuting is widely offered and successfully implemented in the federal government; and some local jurisdictions have offered telecommuting options. While the City has a telecommuting policy, we only noted a few departments using this option. Currently, ITA is considering implementing telecommuting for the operators.
Workplace conditions, including technology, can have a significant impact on employee performance and satisfaction. Next generation employees are more mobile and more reliant on information and communication technologies. Growing up with technology, they expect to have up to date tools and technology at their jobs.
Physical space and the ability to interact with other team members is another important consideration for new employees. The report identifies working conditions, including physical design and technology as critically important. Government agencies have a reputation for maintaining outdated, bleak spaces, which may be compounded by poor environmental conditions i.
For example, during difficult economic times, the City reduced janitorial services by eliminating window cleaning and trash pickup services. While these decisions made financial sense at the time, they should be revisited as unkempt workplaces can disengage employees and result in diminished productivity. Due to budget constraints, and cultural history, including the decentralized nature of the City operations, Personnel is not able to do as much in areas of employee retention and engagement.
Its focus has been with the complex selecting and hiring process on behalf of City departments. Workforce of Tomorrow. Press Releases. Toggle navigation. The multi-step Civil Service process takes an average of 98 days to open an exam to solicit applications, and another days to establish a certified list of ranked applicants. The collective 7. The civilian workforce does not represent the gender breakdown of Los Angeles. Non-traditional feeder positions should be more fully utilized and more outreach conducted to help the City achieve a more representative workforce.
Expand where and how the City seeks prospective employees and better utilize the Targeted Local Hire program, fellowships, internships and varied online platforms. Evaluate and update salaries, job qualifications and job titles. The Jobs and Skills WA Employer Incentive the incentive provides financial assistance to Western Australian businesses who employ an apprentice or new entrant trainee and who have lodged the training contract for registration on or after 1 July The aim of the incentive is to increase apprenticeship and traineeship commencements by providing employers with assistance to meet the costs of employing an apprentice or trainee.
Find out if you are eligible to access this funding on our Employer Incentive page. These include:. Select each step to find out more about each one. A job analysis looks at the duties and responsibilities of a job in your business. The job analysis will inform the job description and job requirements, prior to advertising for a potential employee. Conducting a job analysis will help you to determine:. Use the Job analysis template to help you to establish the work requirements relating to a role or to identify ways that an existing role could be modified. If you are filling an existing position, identify the knowledge, skills, experience, qualities required to do the existing job.
Specifically identify the existing tasks that the departing employee is already doing. Now identify any tasks that the departing employee is doing that may not be in their job description. If this discretionary effort is not built into the new job description, functions or tasks may be missed altogether, disrupting the way your business runs. The business may be experiencing rapid growth so, for example, the vacant payroll clerk position may instead become a personnel officer role to cope with both payroll and staffing issues.
Once you have collated all the information, you are ready to prepare the job description and selection criteria. This is a key document that enables you to easily compare the skills, knowledge and attributes required for the position to those of the applicant. The Job description and selection criteria template may be useful here.
Skills: the levels of proficiency required to perform a particular task. Knowledge: the actual or procedural information necessary to successfully complete a task. Attributes: the characteristics or traits of an individual. Job descriptions generally have the following four key parts. Select each one to find out more. The objectives of the job should describe why the job exists and relate to the tasks required to do the job.
It is important to remember that a job description represents an opportunity to sell the job and your organisation. It is often the first place a job applicant will learn about your organisation. The description of the tasks, duties and responsibilities should:. The selection criteria are the requirements of the job that you will use to adequately and fairly assess the suitability of applicants during selection.
Selection criteria can include both essential and desirable criteria. The successful applicant should have all of the essential criteria.
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The desirable criteria may be helpful to distinguish between competitive applicants who satisfy the essential criteria. Check out the Job description and selection criteria template if you haven't already. If none of your job applicants meet the essential criteria, you should go back to the job description to see if you have realistic expectations.
You may need to consider training applicants, training the staff you have, re-designing the job or engaging labour hire or recruitment companies to find the right employee. Prior to advertising your vacancy, you need to determine the application method you wish to use and how you will assess the applicants. In your advertisement, you need to clearly outline the application process you will use to short-list the best applicants. You can ask them to do one or a combination of the following things:.
1) Approach Diversity Differently
Check out the Assessment methods information sheet for some common assessment methods suitable for small to medium sized businesses. Applicants appreciate employers who inform them that they have received their applications and advise them about any further process to be undertaken. This can be done in writing, over the phone or by email. Finding the right employee depends a great deal on how and where the job is advertised. It makes sense to put your advertisement to work where it will benefit you most. There are some principles you should be aware of when advertising vacancies.
They include, but are not limited to the following:. Have a look at Advertise a job for some examples of what to include in a job advertisement. Keep in mind that the person you are looking for may already be working in your business. Sometimes it is beneficial to recruit from within. It sends a message to other staff that opportunities for promotion or multi-skilling are available in your business. Selection is the process of choosing the best available candidate to fill your position.
Once you have short listed your best applicants you should decide the method of assessing their suitability. Depending on the nature of the job, a formal or informal interview might be best. You may wish to have applicants undertake a practical test to determine if they have the skills needed for the job. Interview questions should be based on the skills, knowledge and experience required for the job.
Ask questions that relate to:.
Do not ask personal questions, or questions that do not relate directly to the person's skills, experience or knowledge or ability to do the job. It's not just the applicants who need to prepare for an interview — you do too. To help keep a record of how each applicant goes in the interview, you can use the Interview record form. When you have made your decision, you should first notify the successful applicant with your offer of employment, before notifying unsuccessful applicants.
If your first choice declines the position, you may choose to offer the position to the next most suitable candidate.
A letter of appointment will make the offer of employment official. Appointing the successful applicant includes the following steps. Skip to main content. Home Training About training in WA Choosing a training course Choosing a training provider How to apply and enrol, fees and costs Training and assessment pathways. Schools and school students Learning support and assistance International students. Training for employers and business Financial incentives for employers Group training organisations.
Central regional Kalgoorlie Geraldton Northam. Balga Joondalup Northbridge. North regional Broome Karratha. Peel Mandurah Rockingham Thornlie. South regional Albany Bunbury. Career planning Getting started Finding out Taking action Skilling up. Finding a job Searching for a job Getting organised Applying for a job Job interviews. Information and resources. What we offer Events, workshops and forums Aboriginal services jobs board. Jobseekers Choose a path Skill up Get a job Information and resources. Employers Workplace of choice Finding Aboriginal employees Information and support.
Introduction Workforce planning Workplace health check Five easy steps to workforce planning. Developing your workforce Attraction and recruitment Training and development Management and motivation Retention Leadership and communication. Breadcrumb Home Resources for employers Developing your workforce Attraction and recruitment. Attraction and recruitment. Attracting employees. Think about your competitive advantage Before recruiting you need to think about what employment benefits you can offer that would be attractive to prospective employees.
Develop a list of realistic benefits that you are able to offer such as: flexible work arrangements; induction programs; mentoring arrangements; training and development opportunities; competitive salaries; or a positive brand and business reputation in the community. A business with a positive employer brand is more likely to: attract more candidates and therefore have the pick of the best candidates; create a business identity that is embraced and promoted by current employees; and have the best employees and therefore be more competitive in the market place.
Build your employer brand and reputation. Develop clear and consistent policies and procedures. This helps all employees know what they are supposed to do and how to go about it. Model effective leadership and management behaviour. Building a positive workplace culture. What is workplace culture? Symbols, for example, could be as simple as uniform style or clear job descriptions that show you respect employees.
Rituals might include the fact that everyone downs tools half an hour before knock-off to allow time to clean up. Your business and its place in the community Corporate social responsibility requires businesses and managers to behave ethically and strive to improve the quality of life for employees, their families, the local community and society in general.
How you can be a good corporate citizen Acting in a socially responsible and ethical manner can generate profit and win you points in becoming an employer of choice. Expand your employment pool — Build a diverse workforce. Aboriginal people. Your local Jobs and Skills Centre can help you to attract, recruit and retain Aboriginal employees by: providing information about financial incentives that may be available for employers who employ Aboriginal people; promoting vacancies to Aboriginal job seekers; providing resources and advice on recruitment and retention strategies; and providing access to mentoring services and cultural awareness training.
Find your local Jobs and Skills Centre. Call your nearest Jobs and Skills Centre 13 64 Australian Government programs. People from culturally and linguistically diverse CaLD backgrounds. You can manage the diversity of your workforce and maximise its potential by: implementing equal opportunity and cultural competency training for staff; establishing mentoring arrangements to support the integration of culturally and linguistically diverse employees into the workplace and encourage retention; providing access to English language training where appropriate; and contacting your local training provider for more information and assistance.
Recently arrived migrants. Apprentices and trainees. It also makes good business sense to ensure women are represented in the workplace because: women tend to be more highly educated than men. A fair workplace encourages employees to stay with a business. People with disability. Under-employed people. People who are under-employed may be: working part time in the industry for someone else; working part time in another industry but with transferable skills matched to your vacancies; working full time in seasonal work that would have them available at your peak periods; students looking to supplement their income while studying sometimes a complete work area can be staffed by students on integrated rosters ; or farmers, or their dependants, who need to supplement their income and may already have some of the skills you want.
People returning to work. Mature age workers. Research reveals that some of the favourable qualities of mature age workers include: life and work experience; a strong work ethic; higher than average commitment to their workplaces; lower absenteeism; reliability and stability; and they are not necessarily looking for career progression, which can be good for workplaces that offer limited promotional opportunity. Phased retirees. Additional information.